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Methods of biomass energy conversion

METHODS OF BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION

Biomass can be converted into electricity, heat, and biofuels.

INTRODUCTION

Methods of Biomass Energy Conversion

Biomass, a renewable energy source, can be converted into electricity, heat, and biofuels using two main technologies: thermochemical and biochemical.

1. Types of Biomass Energy:

Biomass is divided into two basic types:

  • Primary: Created from the natural photosynthesis of green plants, accumulating solar energy.
  • Secondary: Created from the decomposition and conversion of organic waste from daily human and animal activities.

Biomass exists in solid, liquid, and gas forms.

  • Solid biomass: Examples include rice husk, bagasse, and wood chips.
  • Liquid biomass: Includes vegetable oil, ethanol, and biodiesel.
  • Gaseous biomass: Includes methane, biogas, and hydrogen.

Methods of biomass energy conversion

2. Purpose of Biomass Energy Conversion

Biomass can be converted into electricity, heat, biofuels, and chemical feedstocks. Factors like biomass type and quantity, technical requirements, economic conditions, and project specifics influence the choice of conversion technology.

3. Methods of Biomass Energy Conversion:

Amid the depletion risk of fossil fuels, biofuels are a vital option. Biofuels include solid, liquid, and gas fuels produced from biomass like crops and organic waste. Bioethanol and biodiesel are widely used in transportation and industry.

3.1 Thermochemical Conversion:

  • Combustion: A common method of converting biomass into heat, steam, or electricity.

Methods of biomass energy conversion

  • Gasification: Produces syngas and biochar from biomass.

Methods of biomass energy conversion

  • Pyrolysis: Decomposes organic matter into solid, liquid, and gas mixtures.

Methods of biomass energy conversion

  • Liquefaction: Converts biomass into stable liquid hydrocarbons under high pressure and low temperature.

3.2 Biochemical Conversion:

  • Anaerobic Digestion: Converts organic matter into biogas


  • Fermentation: Produces ethanol from high-sugar crops.

  • Transesterification: Converts bio-oil into fatty acid methyl esters.

Conclusion:

There are many technologies to convert biomass into useful energy. The method depends on the raw materials and desired end products. Gasification is seen as the most commercially viable method, while pyrolysis is rapidly developing with great potential. Anaerobic digestion also plays a crucial role in converting organic waste into gaseous fuel.

(Vn-Industry.)

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