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Centrifugal pump


A centrifugal pump is an equipment which can supply water to the steam boiler. The primary function of a boiler feed water pump is to deliver water to the boiler at high pressure and temperature to maintain the boiler’s operational requirements and ensure efficient steam generation.


A centrifugal pump is a mechanical device that commonly transports fluids, such as water, chemicals, and various other liquids, from one place to another. It operates on the principle of centrifugal force to convert mechanical energy, typically from an electric motor or an engine, into kinetic energy and then into potential energy within the fluid. This conversion of energy results in the movement of the fluid through the pump and its discharge at a higher pressure or elevation. 

Grundfos vertical centrifugal pump series.


The centrifugal pump can convert mechanical energy from a rotating impeller into kinetic energy in the fluid being pumped and then into potential energy in the form of pressure. This process allows the pump to transport fluids from a lower pressure or elevation to a higher pressure or elevation.

Principle of centrifugal pump

These pumps depend heavily on the rotation of the impeller to achieve centrifugal force to help transfer liquid.


Centrifugal pumps can be categorized based on various factors, including design, application, and operational characteristics. Here are some common categories of centrifugal pumps in boiler system:

Vertical Pumps: Vertical centrifugal pumps have a vertical orientation, with the motor located above the pump. Because of their high pressure, they are used in applications with limited space or for boiler-feed water pumps.

Vertical pump characteristic

Horizontal Pumps: Horizontal centrifugal pumps have a horizontal orientation, with the motor typically mounted beside the pump. Therefore, various industries and applications often use them.

Horizontal centrifugal characteristic


Flow Rate (Capacity): Determine the required flow rate of the pump to meet the boiler’s demand for feed water. Consider factors such as the boiler’s capacity and the steam generation rate, which will influence the flow rate needed.
Pressure Requirements:
Assess the pressure requirements of the boiler. Different boilers operate at various pressures, and the pump must be capable of providing the necessary pressure to overcome system resistance and maintain proper boiler pressure.
Boiler Type: The type of boiler (e.g., firetube, water-tube) and its specific design can impact the choice of pump. According to that, some boilers may require higher-pressure pumps, while others may have lower-pressure requirements.
Water Quality:
Consider the quality of the feed water. Depending on the application, water treatment processes may be necessary to remove impurities that could cause scaling, corrosion, or other issues in the boiler.
Boiler feed water pumps must handle water at elevated temperatures. Ensure that the selected pump can operate reliably at the required temperature without overheating or compromising performance.
Impeller Design:
Choose the appropriate impeller design for the pump. For example, multi-stage pumps with multiple impellers in series can reach higher pressure requirements, while single-stage pumps may suffice for lower-pressure systems.
Look for a pump with high efficiency to minimize energy consumption and operating costs. 
Materials of Construction:
Consider the materials used in the pump’s construction, especially in contact with water. Ensure they are compatible with the temperature, pressure, and water quality of the system.


In summary, centrifugal pumps are commonly used to deliver water from the water tank to the boiler because of their wide range of size and capacity. They also have become the industry standard for boiler feed water applications due to their reliability and efficiency. Many boiler systems are designed with centrifugal pumps in mind, making them a practical and well-established choice.


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