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Chain Grate Steam Boiler

MARTECH JSC – The energy solutions

 

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

Chain grate boiler is simple to operate and easy to maintain

INTRODUCTION

Chain-grate steam boiler is a device that uses heat from burned fuel (coal, firewood, rice husk, biomass, ...) to heat water into steam for production or electricity generation needs. Depending on the purpose of use, create a steam source with suitable temperature and pressure to meet the needs of use. Boilers can be divided into 3 types: energy boilers, industrial boilers, and civil boilers.

Chain-grate boiler is the type with combustion chamber with the highest degree of mechanization among the types of combustion chambers that burn fuel in layers. The feature of this type of combustion chamber is that the chain burner moves endlessly and the fuel layer moves simultaneously with the burner.

However, to ensure the service conditions of the operator, the chain grate cannot be designed more than 4.5m wide and more than 8m long. This makes the maximum capacity of the combustion chamber only about 40 MW, the steam output reaches 120 tons/hour.

SPECIFICATION

Calculation & Design : according to ASME and TCVN

Fabrication : According to ASME and TCVN

Evaporation Capacity : (10,000-200,000) kg/h

Design Pressure : ( 10-100) bar(g)

Fuel : Indonesia coal & Biomass

Boiler Efficiency : 87%

Steam Quality : Saturated or Superheated

CHAIN GRATE STEAM BOILER LAYOUT

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

 

STRUCTURE AND OPERATION PRINCIPLE

 

1. Fuel supply system to the furnace:

The feeding system includes equipment such as excavators, fuel hoppers, buckets, conveyors, screws… which are arranged to control flexibly, quantitatively and automatically to supply fuel to the boiler. . In addition, the feed system is also equipped with a weight scale to determine the amount of fuel consumed for the boiler.

2. Chain grate (burning chamber) – Furnace body:

The feed hopper is located outside the combustion chamber area. Thanks to the effect of gravity, the fuel is spread evenly on the grate, then the fuel goes with the chain grate into the combustion chamber of the boiler. During the movement of the burner, the stages of fuel combustion occurred one after the other and occupied certain regions along the log length. The slag generated at the end of the combustion process is dropped into the slag hopper by the slag removal device.

The combustion of fuel is a chemical reaction between the chemical elements of the fuel and oxygen, which emits light and produces heat (combustion is an oxidation process). The main oxidizing agent is oxygen (taken from the air) supplied to the chain burner through the air boxes. The combustible elements in the fuel (C, H, O, N, S, …) are oxidized during combustion, the product after combustion is called smoke.

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

Chain burner

When the combustion process takes place, the heat will be transferred to the steam-generating tubes located around the combustion chamber. The water in the tubes of the steam generator is heated to a boil and produces steam. The generated steam mixture is brought up to concentrate in the steam drum. The steam bag is used to separate the steam from the steam mixture. The un-evaporated water contained in the evaporator is returned to the steam generators through a system of down pipes placed outside the wet wall (so as not to absorb heat). The water going in the down pipes is not heated, having a higher specific gravity than the steam mixture in the steam generator tubes. That creates a difference in the weight of the water column, causing the fluid to circulate naturally in a closed circulation. But when the working pressure of the boiler reaches the subcritical or critical state or more, a circulation pump must be used to support the movement of water through the steam generator. The steam coming out of the steam bag is saturated steam, if superheated steam quality is required, it is passed through the super heater to be heated to high temperature superheated steam.

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

Chained Boiler Body

3. Chain grate boiler air and water recovery unit

Exhaust smoke is generated during the combustion of fuel, after passing through the convection tube beams of the boiler, the energy from this heat source is still very large. Therefore, in the boiler system, it is necessary to use the feed water heater and the feed air dryer to take advantage of this heat source, avoid wasting energy and ensure the highest furnace efficiency.

Water from the supply water tank after being degassed (removing oxygen (O2) and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in the water) is pumped into the water heater. Here, the water is heated to the right temperature, then continues to move into the boiler’s boiler. However, the water heater should not be designed too large, in order to avoid the undesirable situation that the water generates steam in the water heater, creating a great resistance on the water supply line to the boiler.

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

Boiler Degassing Water Tank

The air from the outside environment is supplied by the fan to the air dryer to make the most of the heat of the exhaust smoke brought out, the smoke after passing the air dryer is about 110 – 140 o C. The temperature of the exhaust smoke is also should not be too low to avoid the problem of chimney corrosion due to fogging in the smoke (SO2 or NOx in the smoke is oxidized to acid).

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

Chain grate boiler water and wind recovery unit

4. Dust filtering system:

The dust filter system can use bag dust filter system, electrostatic precipitator or wet filter tower to handle dust for the boiler. These dust filter devices will filter and separate dust particles in the exhaust smoke, ensuring that the smoke discharged from the chimney meets all the parameters of environmental standards.

5. Exhaust fan and chimney:

Exhaust fan is a device that sucks exhaust smoke from the boiler combustion chamber, and at the same time pushes the smoke into the chimney and discharged into the environment. The exhaust fan is also a device to maintain negative pressure in the combustion chamber to avoid a positive accident occurring, causing danger to the operator and the boiler system.

Exhaust Fan and Chain Burner Boiler Chimney

REFERENCE

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

Chaingrate Boiler System

Chain Grate Steam Boiler

 

FUEL & APPLICATION INDUSTRIES

Application Industry

Fuel

Application Industry

Application Industry

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